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 Snuff sensitivity

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Hunter5117

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Age : 63
Location : Somewhere between Kansas and Missouri
Registration date : 2009-07-29

PostSubject: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 12:31 pm

Does regular use of snuff increase your sensitivity to nicotine? I have been snuffing for a little under 2 months and for the past 2 weeks I notice that snuffs that didn't really give me much of a kick, now they can send my head spinning. I don't snuff any more than when I started out, in fact maybe a little less due to the pronounced effect I am getting.

Added to this, I haven't been smoking my pipes as much due to the nasty-hot/humid weather, the other night I went out for a bowl of FVF and it gave me much more buzz than I have ever had from it before. Usually there are very few tobaccos that I notice any nicotine effect from.

Guess I would have thought the N effect would have been diminished over time, this has me confused.
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gandalfpc

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Age : 51
Registration date : 2009-10-03

PostSubject: Re: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 1:55 pm

might shed some light on it...

from two posts located here - Snus Forum Post

---

Nicotine has a half-life of only about 2 hours, so within one day (24h = 12 half-lives) you only have 0.5 ^ 12 = 0.000244 times as much in your system as you did 24h prior. By two days you have only 60 billionths the amount - it goes away quickly. What doesn't go away quickly is your brain's sensitivity to it. Nicotine stimulates production of several neurotransmitters which, present in excess, reduce the sensitivity of your brain and body to them.

I quote from a 2001 study :

(...) (R)eversal of tolerance appears to be very limited, or very slow, following extended abstinence from smoking and presumed elimination of dependence. Tolerance to subjective effects of nicotine was moderate in exsmokers, who had been abstinent an average of nearly 7 years, because dose-response curves generally were shifted to the right, relative to those for nonsmokers, but usually not as far right as those for currently dependent and nondependent smokers. These results are consistent with one study (Hughes et al., 1989), but not another (Hughes et al., 2000), of tolerance to nicotine in long-time exsmokers, both of which examined the subjective effects of nicotine gum in exsmokers versus current smokers and nonsmokers. Preclinical research suggests that lengthy nicotine exposure can produce a "persistent inactivation" of nicotinic receptors that may be irreversible (Reitstetter et al., 1999). Thus, mechanisms responsible for at least some of these subjective effects may never fully regain the same degree of sensitivity to nicotine as that exhibited during initial exposure (e.g., teens experimenting with tobacco). Such incomplete tolerance reversal may help explain why many exsmokers who relapse can rapidly resume smoking at a high rate, often within days or weeks, after even extended abstinence (Norregaard et al., 1992), whereas those initially na´ve to smoking invariably require at least a few years to escalate to high-rate smoking (McNeill et al., 1989).

The finding of substantial chronic tolerance to most subjective effects of nicotine but little or none to cardiovascular and performance responses (except hand steadiness) supports the notion that tolerance is response-specific (Arcavi et al., 1994; Perkins et al., 1994). Although the timing of the performance tasks later in the battery could have reduced the chances of observing tolerance to those measures, this seems unlikely given that the hand steadiness task, which did show tolerance, was performed after finger-tapping, which did not. Moreover, we observed a similar lack of tolerance to cardiovascular measures, which were obtained concurrently with subjective measures that did show tolerance. Underlying mechanisms responsible for subjective effects of nicotine must show substantial chronic adaptation with repeated exposure, whereas mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular and most performance effects do not. Notably, we saw little evidence of sensitization, or increased sensitivity to nicotine due to past exposure, which would result in a shift to the left in dose-response curves of smokers compared with nonsmokers (Kalant and Khanna, 1990), although memory recognition was improved by nicotine in dependent smokers only.

from :

Dissociation of Nicotine Tolerance from Tobacco Dependence in Humans

Kenneth A. Perkins, Debra Gerlach, Michelle Broge, James E. Grobe1 , Mark Sanders, Carolyn Fonte, Josh Vender, Christine Cherry and Annette Wilson

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (K.A.P., D.G., M.B., J.E.G., M.S., C.F., J.V., C.C.); and Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (A.W.)

THE JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS - Vol. 296, Issue 3, 849-856, March 2001

--- and ----

In terms of the tolerance associated with cigarettes - I've just dug up a study which notes that cigarette smoke contains monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (clicky link (http://www.biopsychiatry.com/nicotine-mao.htm)) : chemicals which retard the effectiveness of this chemical in breaking down neurotransmitters. It could well be that these are not present in snus and are a product of the heat of combustion in the cigarette. MAOIs extend the life of all of the neurochemicals it is ordinarily responsible for destroying, so things like dopamine, serotonin, etc, are all extended in lifetime in the synapse.

Basically, what happens is that, in normal operation, a neuron discharges neurotransmitters into the narrow space between itself and its neighbour. The neurotransmitters bind to receptors in the neighbouring neuron and cause it to react by firing neurotransmitters itself. After firing, monoamine-oxidase does the work of destroying the messenger chemicals in the synapse. If, however, you have monoamine-oxidase inhibitors in your bloodstream, these will slow the destruction of these and extend the duration of the synaptic firing - making the sensory message more "intense".

So it could be the case that the MAOI effect of the cigarette smoke is what causes the heigtened response rather than the nicotine. MAOIs are notoriously non-specific, so they wlll heighten the sensations of many neurochemical pathways in addition to those stimulated by nicotine. The study I quoted was testing people only on nicotine response and not on cigarette response - maybe that's an explanation
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Hunter5117

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Age : 63
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PostSubject: Re: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 3:42 pm

Uh, yeah, I was thinking something like that Sleep

For the benefit of the others, could you please explain what the H E double toothpicks that means! affraid
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gandalfpc

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PostSubject: Re: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 3:51 pm

It means that normally the more you use the higher your tolerance - meaning less sensitivity - but it is possible that the receptors in the brain take a while to fully gear up to the chemical changes, so there could be an initial ramping up of sensitivity as your body adjusts.

So initially much of the chemicals go unused, until your body develops the ability to process them.

I would imagine that you can count on your sensitivity ramping down after this as your tolerance goes up.
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Hunter5117

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Age : 63
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PostSubject: Re: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 4:07 pm

What's funny is that I have been a smoker on and off for 40 years. Pipes, cigs, cigars (including the killer strong fad) and now mostly just the pipe again. Snuff is the first thing that has given me this funny sensitivity for such a relatively long period of time with no sign of letting up yet.

Thanks Gandalf.
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gandalfpc

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PostSubject: Re: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 4:24 pm

Snuff is the fastest delivery system by far (as far as uptake of chems go) - so you get a quick punch - 30 years of smoking was no protection for me Smile
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Hunter5117

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Age : 63
Location : Somewhere between Kansas and Missouri
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PostSubject: Re: Snuff sensitivity   Tue Jun 08, 2010 4:56 pm

I have to watch it during the day, I can get fuzzy-brained (even more than normal) not good during an important meeting or call.
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